英雄联盟S11比赛竞猜

桁架机械手

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:honduras-tour.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械(xie)手由主体(ti)、驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)系统和(he)控制(zhi)系统三个基本部(bu)分组成。按(an)机(ji)器人结构(gou)分类为(wei)直角(jiao)(jiao)坐标型(xing),机(ji)械(xie)手沿(yan)二(er)维直角(jiao)(jiao)坐标系移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)。主体(ti)部(bu)分通(tong)常采(cai)用龙门式结构(gou),由y向横(heng)梁与(yu)(yu)导(dao)轨、z向滑枕(zhen)、十字(zi)滑座、立(li)柱、过(guo)渡(du)连接板和(he)基座等部(bu)分组成,z向的直线运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)皆为(wei)交流(liu)伺服电动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)通(tong)过(guo)蜗轮(lun)减速器驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)齿轮(lun)与(yu)(yu)y向横(heng)梁、z向滑枕(zhen)上固定(ding)的齿条作滚动(dong)(dong)(dong),驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部(bu)件沿(yan)导(dao)轨快速运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)。移(yi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部(bu)件为(wei)质量较轻的十字(zi)滑座和(he)z向滑枕(zhen),滑枕(zhen)采(cai)用由铝合金拉制(zhi)的型(xing)材。横(heng)梁采(cai)用方钢型(xing)材,在横(heng)梁上安装(zhuang)有导(dao)轨和(he)齿条,通(tong)过(guo)滚轮(lun)与(yu)(yu)导(dao)轨接触,整个机(ji)械(xie)手都悬挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)于桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du)快,加速(su)度(du)大,加减速(su)时间短。当(dang)输(shu)送(song)(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件时,惯量(liang)大,因(yin)(yin)此,伺服(fu)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)要有足够(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)和(he)(he)制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)能力,支(zhi)撑(cheng)元件也要有足够(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)及(ji)(ji)强度(du)。只有这(zhei)样,才能使伺服(fu)电(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)满足桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)响应、高(gao)刚度(du)及(ji)(ji)高(gao)精度(du)要求。在(zai)(zai)选(xuan)择(ze)合适(shi)伺服(fu)电(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下,根(gen)据物料(liao)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离(li)和(he)(he)运(yun)行节(jie)拍,计算(suan)出伺服(fu)系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移(yi)和(he)(he)轨迹,对(dui)(dui)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)器PID参数进行动(dong)(dong)态调整。桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)根(gen)据接(jie)收到的(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移(yi)、速(su)度(du)指令(ling),经(jing)变(bian)化(hua)、放(fang)大并(bing)调整处理后,传(chuan)(chuan)递(di)给运(yun)动(dong)(dong)单元,通过光纤传(chuan)(chuan)感器对(dui)(dui)运(yun)行状态进行实时检测(ce)(ce),在(zai)(zai)高(gao)速(su)搬(ban)运(yun)过程中,运(yun)动(dong)(dong)部件在(zai)(zai)极短的(de)(de)(de)(de)时间内到达(da)给定的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du),并(bing)能在(zai)(zai)高(gao)速(su)行程中瞬(shun)间准停,通过高(gao)分辩率绝对(dui)(dui)式编(bian)码器的(de)(de)(de)(de)插补(bu)运(yun)算(suan),控制(zhi)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)误(wu)差和(he)(he)测(ce)(ce)量(liang)误(wu)差对(dui)(dui)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)精度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响。由(you)于被(bei)输(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件不(bu)同(tong),质(zhi)量(liang)也不(bu)同(tong),因(yin)(yin)此,桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)有多种规格和(he)(he)系列。在(zai)(zai)选(xuan)择(ze)时,根(gen)据被(bei)输(shu)送(song)(song)工(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang),加工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)节(jie)拍来(lai)选(xuan)取。但机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)手(shou)臂(bei),夹持方式,则根(gen)据被(bei)输(shu)送(song)(song)工(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)形状、结(jie)构及(ji)(ji)机(ji)(ji)床夹具定夹方式来(lai)设计(见图2)。

机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)能(neng)够借助可编程序来处(chu)理和执行任(ren)务。机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)主要(yao)由手(shou)图 1 臂(bei)、回(hui)转装置(zhi)、运动部件(jian)(jian)及(ji)驱动部件(jian)(jian)组成。通过(guo)对工(gong)件(jian)(jian)外形或工(gong)件(jian)(jian)上定(ding)(ding)位(wei)支撑(cheng)点定(ding)(ding)位(wei)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)。例如(ru),在汽车(che)发(fa)动机(ji)(ji)加(jia)工(gong)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)动线物流输送中,桁架机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)的(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)(kuai)会(hui)根(gen)据(ju)缸体、缸盖、曲轴等(deng)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)外形特点,选取不同(tong)的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)方式。柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)上采用气缸和电机(ji)(ji)进行定(ding)(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)(kuai)的(de)(de)切(qie)(qie)换驱动,一套(tao)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)可完成不同(tong)品(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian)搬运工(gong)作。夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)可根(gen)据(ju)产品(pin)质量和外形的(de)(de)大小采用系列化(hua)设计(ji),机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)上的(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)安装方式相同(tong),针对不同(tong)系列的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian),只需(xu)切(qie)(qie)换相应的(de)(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模块(kuai)(kuai)即可,满足快速切(qie)(qie)换的(de)(de)需(xu)要(yao)。这样,当(dang)加(jia)工(gong)不同(tong)品(pin)种的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)(jian),只须变换夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模块(kuai)(kuai)就可实现,提高了桁架机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)的(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)化(hua)。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机械手输送(song)装(zhuang)置的发展及(ji)现状(zhuang)

自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,经历(li)了(le)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)两个(ge)时代。就目前而(er)(er)(er)言, 在国内二者均有之。刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)分为(wei)棘轮棘爪(zhua)、摆杆(gan)、抬起(qi)步(bu)(bu)(bu)伐(fa)、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道(dao)等(deng)(deng)形(xing)式。随(sui)着加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,由(you)(you)其(qi)组(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)(bu)(bu)替(ti)代组(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床组(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它以适(shi)应小批(pi)量(liang)多品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)优点(dian),得到(dao)市场(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛(fan)认可(ke),并(bing)(bing)称(cheng)其(qi)为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)种(zhong)以加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床组(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就其(qi)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)带依(yi)然(ran)为(wei)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是(shi)准(zhun)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当(dang)今的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又(you)有了(le)飞跃,输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)形(xing)式以刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou))并(bing)(bing)存(cun),或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)系(xi)统全部(bu)由(you)(you)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)组(zu)(zu)成,这(zhei)是(shi)真(zhen)正的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)系(xi)统也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心配以桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song),又(you)称(cheng)之为(wei)敏捷柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)敏捷制(zhi)造(zao)系(xi)统的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)组(zu)(zu)成部(bu)分。自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)用桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)后,输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)(bu)距可(ke)根(gen)据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)(zhi)随(sui)意改(gai)变,自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床之间的(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)位置(zhi)(zhi)不再象刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)(bu)距或(huo)步(bu)(bu)(bu)距倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求进(jin)行严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)速度也(ye)可(ke)根(gen)据生(sheng)产节拍及输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离而(er)(er)(er)改(gai)变。而(er)(er)(er)真(zhen)正体现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)一(yi)面是(shi),当(dang)被(bei)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)产品改(gai)变后,输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)部(bu)分不会不适(shi)应而(er)(er)(er)全部(bu)更换(huan),只要(yao)改(gai)变输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)程(cheng)序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)局(ju)部(bu)结构(gou)即可(ke)。采(cai)用桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)更先进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面是(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整体的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)协调统一(yi)。因此,桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)才在当(dang)今柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上越来越多地(di)被(bei)采(cai)用,使整个(ge)生(sheng)产过程(cheng)通过信息(xi)流(liu)(liu)系(xi)统进(jin)行控(kong)制(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)过程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),所需各(ge)种(zhong)信息(xi)收(shou)集、处理(li)、反馈,并(bing)(bing)通过电子计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其(qi)他控(kong)制(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(液压、气压装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)等(deng)(deng)),对(dui)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床或(huo)运输(shu)(shu)设备实行分级(ji)控(kong)制(zhi)。信息(xi)流(liu)(liu)系(xi)统分为(wei)由(you)(you)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)央管理(li)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流(liu)(liu)控(kong)制(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元(yuan)控(kong)制(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床以及信息(xi)传送(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)成。目前,汽车制(zhi)造(zao)业中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体、缸盖(gai)及曲轴等(deng)(deng)大(da)(da)批(pi)量(liang)关键零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)(da)都采(cai)用了(le)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(见图(tu)3)。

2. 国(guo)内外的差距

当下(xia),我国(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展很(hen)(hen)快(kuai),技术(shu)(shu)水(shui)平有(you)了很(hen)(hen)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)提高,与国(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)变得越来越小,甚至有(you)些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与国(guo)外相比已经没有(you)什么差(cha)距(ju)。特别是国(guo)家重大(da)科(ke)技专项的(de)(de)(de)开展,为我国(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)上(shang)档次上(shang)水(shui)平提高了加(jia)(jia)(jia)速度,成绩显而易(yi)见。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)这几年(nian)发(fa)展的(de)(de)(de)特别快(kuai),但柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)(shu)水(shui)平和(he)(he)档次,较(jiao)国(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)还很(hen)(hen)明显,国(guo)外采(cai)用桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)较(jiao)为普遍,而国(guo)内(nei)却(que)为数不多,国(guo)内(nei)庞大(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽(qi)车(che)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)市(shi)场(chang)所采(cai)用的(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)多从国(guo)外进(jin)口。如无锡柴油发(fa)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂(chang)的(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)体缸(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)盖柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)由德国(guo)GROB公司(si)总承包(bao),由BZ800加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧(ning)紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压(ya)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)线(xian)(xian)检具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成。输(shu)送(song)采(cai)用空中桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)输(shu)送(song)。仅以汽(qi)车(che)制造业而言,国(guo)内(nei)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),采(cai)用桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈指(zhi)可(ke)数。大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团和(he)(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团等生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)出(chu)了该方面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),并在(zai)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)实际(ji)中得到了应用。图4是大(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)体加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)柔性(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)两种(zhong)缸(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)体,分别为四缸(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)和(he)(he)六缸(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang),其输(shu)送(song)采(cai)用空中桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)两端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)滚道等形(xing)式。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)两个,一(yi)个上(shang)料,一(yi)个下(xia)料。它(ta)的(de)(de)(de)成功,标(biao)志着我国(guo)国(guo)产(chan)(chan)由桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)开始向(xiang)国(guo)际(ji)水(shui)准迈进(jin)。

上述提(ti)及的(de)只(zhi)是(shi)数量上的(de)比较,其实真正的(de)原因(yin)还(hai)是(shi)国(guo)产(chan)桁架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)技术(shu)水平与(yu)国(guo)外(wai)(wai)有着一定的(de)差(cha)距(ju)。柔性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)线采用的(de)桁架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou),也(ye)是(shi)从(cong)国(guo)外(wai)(wai)进口的(de)桁架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)。那时,国(guo)内(nei)还(hai)没有专门(men)生(sheng)产(chan)桁架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)厂家。如今,国(guo)内(nei)巨一等(deng)一些桁架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)生(sheng)产(chan)厂家的(de)涌出,为国(guo)产(chan)柔性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)线带来(lai)了希(xi)望,进而(er)缩小了与(yu)国(guo)外(wai)(wai)在生(sheng)产(chan)桁架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)方面(mian)的(de)差(cha)距(ju),国(guo)产(chan)桁架(jia)(jia)机械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)在柔性(xing)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)线的(de)应用也(ye)越(yue)(yue)来(lai)越(yue)(yue)多,从(cong)而(er)打(da)破国(guo)产(chan)市(shi)场被(bei)外(wai)(wai)国(guo)人(ren)的(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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